THE FUTURE OF FUEL

INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

International energy market available reserves of fossil fuels are fast running out, and the influence of harmful automobile emissions on the global climate is an ongoing debate. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted as the first addition to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that committed its signatories to develop national programs to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide(CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), per fluorocarbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) affect the energy balance of the global atmosphere in ways expected to lead to an overall increase in global average temperature, known as global warming .

According to the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change, established by the United Nations Environment Program and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988, the long-term effects of global warming would include a general rise in sea level around the world, resulting in the inundation of low-lying coastal areas and the possible disappearance of some island states; the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and Arctic permafrost; an increase in the number of extreme climate-related events, such as floods and droughts, and changes in their distribution; and risk extinction of almost 20 to 30 percent of all plant and animal species.

The Kyoto Protocol committed most of the Annex I signatories to the UNFCCC (consisting of members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and several countries with “economies in transition”) to mandatory emission-reduction targets, which varied depending on the unique circumstances of each country. Other signatories to the UNFCCC and the protocol, consisting mostly of developing countries, were not required to restrict their emissions. The protocol entered into force in February 2005, 90 days after being ratified by at least 55 Annex I signatories that together accounted for at least 55 percent of total carbon dioxide emissions in 1990.

The protocol provided several means for countries to reach their targets. One approach was to make use of natural processes, called “sinks,” that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The planting of trees, which take up carbon dioxide from the air, would be an example. Another approach was by means of an international program called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged developed countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less-developed countries, where there were often significant opportunities to reduce emissions. Under the CDM, the investing country could claim the effective reduction in emissions as a credit toward meeting its obligations under the protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol was a true landmark agreement, the first when developed countries committed to tangible reductions in their greenhouse gas output. But looking back, the problems that have since beset international climate negotiations were evident then. Remembering the lessons learned two decades ago might help negotiators in the present era, still grappling with an effective international response to global warming. Which might explain why, 20 years later, climate negotiators are still exhausted. But again, there are no effective enforcement mechanisms.

For these and other reasons, researchers and developers have been involved in investigating alternative fuels for the automotive and energy industry. Today there are cars and trucks that are powered by Fuel cells and electric mode (FCEV). However, these technologies face some disadvantages such as limited power dynamics and unsatisfactory power–weight ratios. The number of FCEVs is still low -- leaving Fuel cells and electric vehicles (FCEV) a tough alternative to today’s car and energy companies and automakers are already questioning whether it is worth entering the sector. And without a dramatic increase in the number of FCEVs, not only the price of the vehicle but also the cost of hydrogen production and distribution would remain high. As another alternative, the internal combustion (IC) engine itself offers many promising solutions if it is fuelled by hydrogen.

One benefit of hydrogen is that it can be produced from water, which is a renewable energy source, such as solar power. The main emission that results from this type of process is water vapour, making hydrogen, a positive alternative fuel with huge potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

And one point to note here is: mixed use of fossil fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of extending the range of today’s cars as compared to pure hydrogen-fuelled cars. However, a number of disadvantages arise when using one engine design for multiple and very different fuels. The engine is not optimized either for hydrogen or for gasoline/diesel, meaning that efficiency cannot be achieved. When compared to gasoline and diesel, hydrogen has a good deal of variation in physical attributes, such as density, evaporative characteristics and combustion behaviour.

As these types of factors have a direct effect on engine performance, it is clear that if hydrogen were used to replace gasoline or diesel fuel in an engine designed for those fuels, there would be a loss of fuel efficiency and engine effectiveness. In order to properly take advantage of the characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel, a standalone hydrogen-powered engine must be built from the ground up. This was the goal of the Naripa Motor Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.

Supersonic Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Research project is a ten-year effort aimed at designing a clean automobile engine. This initiative led to the development of a hydrogen-powered IC engine that offers significant advantages in terms of cost and power as compared with other systems.

Supersonic Hydrogen Fuel Powered Higher Efficiency Engines inbuilt With Dual Source High-Tech Hydrogen Fuel Generator System and it has own capacity to maintain its hydrogen storage level and hydrogen production speed.

Using IC engine’s 70% heat energy to convert distilled water into steam. Then the steam is supplied into the hydrogen DSHFG device which separates H (hydrogen) and O (oxygen) from H2O by the process of high temperature electrolysis method. This process consumes a minimum amount of electric energy. Hydrogen and Oxygen that is extracted from the H2O molecule mixture is used as a fuel for the Hydrogen Engine Supersonic detonation for higher efficiency. This system operates between 100°c and 350°c. It takes over 240 –360watts of electricity to generate 1kg of Hydrogen in our innovative technology. With Current technology, the calorific energy content of hydrogen is about 39kwh/kg. But taking into account of the process inefficiencies, it takes over 50kwh of electricity to generate 1 kg of hydrogen.

The internal combustion engines of most vehicle burns gasoline and diesel. To do the burning, an engine needs oxygen, and the oxygen comes from the air all around us. But what if cars carried their own and pumped pure oxygen into the engine instead.

The air around us is about 21 percent Oxygen and almost all the rest is Nitrogen, which is inert when it runs through the engine. The oxygen controls how much gasoline and diesel an engine can burn. The ratio of gas to oxygen is about 1:14 -- for each gram of fuel that burns, the engine needs about 14 grams of oxygen. The engine can burn no more gas than the amount of oxygen allows. Any extra fuel would come out of the exhaust pipe unburned.

So if the car used pure oxygen, it would be inhaling 100 percent oxygen instead of 21 percent oxygen, or about five times more oxygen. This would mean that it could burn about five times more fuel. And that would mean about five times more horsepower.

When the supersonic Hydrogen Higher Efficiency IC engine used with both hydrogen and oxygen mixed fuel goes up the explosion goes so fast that, for a moment, it looks like someone sped the tape up while creating a supersonic reaction. The oxygen is already where it needs to be to ignite the hydrogen, and it does so quickly that we actually miss the explosion.

The current Hydrogen production scenario evolves three major problems such as hydrogen cost, hydrogen storage risk and its transportation. These are the reasons for risk in implementing hydrogen technology globally. Our unique technology uses IC Engine waste heat to produce hydrogen by using high temperature electrolysis process.

Hydrogen Filling Stations that use hydrogen delivered as a gas have an average storage of 180 kg/day and an estimated the total cost of $2 million, which includes equipment, design, construction, and commissioning. Hydrogen Filling Stations that use hydrogen delivered as a liquid have an average storage of 350 kg/day and estimated total constructed and commissioned cost of $2.8 million. Hydrogen Filling Stations that make hydrogen onsite from electrolysis of water have an average storage of 120 kg/day and estimated total constructed and commissioned cost of $3.2 million.

Our technology will cut off the burden of costs in importing crude oil and the government can stop spending on expensive hydrogen fuelling infrastructure. Instead we can easily convert Petrol/Diesel bunk station with slight modification with low cost into distilled water bunk station without changing the current Infrastructure and thus creating cost effective, highly efficient and pollution free fuel energy for the country.

To open the new era of a hydrogen society, lowering the price of energy is crucial. Currently 1 kilogram of Hydrogen costs 1,100 Yen ($9.85) in Japan. In India 700 INR, but Naripa Motor Corporation can bring the price of Hydrogen cost down to 30 Yen in Japan and in India 20 INR by 2020.

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Supersonic hydrogen fuel powered higher efficiency IC engine will run in the aircraft, marine, buses, taxis, two wheeler, three wheeler, and heavy vehicle. This is 99% pollution free patented technology. There is no need of Hydrogen filling station. No Hydrogen storage Risk. Its fuel cost is 85% cheaper than petrol and diesel. Through the global deployment of our latest high-tech fuel innovation, we willboost the ratio of renewable energy sources, such as carbon free hydrogen fuel power automobile industry, to help achieve a sustainable society.

Our business theme revolves around the development of clean tech energy by providing high tech hydrogen fuel powered IC engine technology suitable for all manufacturing industries like Car, Bus ,electricity production, agriculture pump set, automobile industry (Two wheelers, Four wheelers, Heavy vehicles), Aircraft IC Engine and Marine IC Engines.

Our company is planning to market the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) on royalty basis to all suitable automobile manufacturing and power industries and the percentage of royalty will be decided on mutual contract between the companies.

We are planning to introduce our technological revolution in Kyoto, Japan and it will be great if you could participate in our event and extend your valuable contribution in saving our Planet Earth by supporting Hydrogen as Future of Fuel.